Interpreting Euro area inflation at high and low frequencies

BIS Working Papers  |  No 195  | 
22 February 2006


Several authors have recently interpreted the ECB's two-pillar framework as separate approaches to forecast and analyse inflation at different time horizons or frequency bands. The ECB has publicly supported this understanding of the framework. This paper presents further evidence on the behaviour of euro area inflation using band spectrum regressions, which allow for a natural definition of the short and long run in terms of specific frequency bands, and causality tests in the frequency domain. The main finding is that variations in inflation are well explained by low-frequency movements of money and real income growth and high-frequency fluctuations of the output gap.

JEL classification: C22, E3, E5

Keywords: spectral regression, frequency domain, quantity theory, inflation, money growth