Virtual banking and beyond

BIS Papers  |  No 120  | 
27 January 2022

The integration of technology, finance and services is rapidly changing the banking landscape, as big techs, fintech firms, non-bank financial institutions as well as incumbent banks take up stakes in virtual banking. New technology-driven models exploit the expanding data footprints of individuals and firms to generate information capital and reduce the reliance on collateral when offering loans and other financial services. Data and entities that manage data will be at the heart of this transformation.  Financial regulators thus need to ensure that regulatory oversight delivers on the inclusion and intermediation-enhancing benefits of digital finance without compromising traditional regulatory goals.  At the same time, there is a pressing need for a system of data governance that allows consumers and business to exercise control over their data through the granting and withholding of consent to the use and transfer of their data.

JEL classification: G28, H41, L15, L17, O33.

Keywords: incumbent banks, virtual banks, banking business models, financial inclusion, technology stack, information capital, data governance, big tech, regulatory framework.