Core principles for effective banking supervision
The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has completed its review of the October 2006 Core principles for effective banking supervision and the associated Core principles methodology. The revised Core Principles were endorsed by banking supervisors at the 17th International Conference of Banking Supervisors held in Istanbul, Turkey, on 13-14 September 2012.
Both the existing Core Principles and the associated assessment methodology have served their purpose well in terms of helping countries to assess their supervisory systems and identify areas for improvement. While conscious efforts were made to maintain continuity and comparability to the extent possible, the revised document combines the Core Principles and the assessment methodology into a single comprehensive document. The revised set of twenty-nine Core Principles has also been reorganised to foster their implementation through a more logical structure, highlighting the difference between what supervisors do and what they expect banks to do: Principles 1 to 13 address supervisory powers, responsibilities and functions, focusing on effective risk-based supervision, and the need for early intervention and timely supervisory actions. Principles 14 to 29 cover supervisory expectations of banks, emphasising the importance of good corporate governance and risk management, as well as compliance with supervisory standards.
Important enhancements have been introduced into the individual Core Principles, particularly in those areas that are necessary to strengthen supervisory practices and risk management. As a result, certain "additional criteria" have been upgraded to"essential criteria", while new assessment criteria were warranted in other instances. Close attention was given to addressing many of the significant risk management weaknesses and other vulnerabilities highlighted in thefinancial crisis. In addition, the review has taken account of several key trends and developments that emerged during the last few years of market turmoil:
- the need for greater supervisory intensity and adequate resources to deal effectively with systemically important banks;
- the importance of applying a system-wide, macro perspective to the microprudential supervision of banks to assist in identifying, analysing and taking pre-emptive action to address systemic risk; and
- the increasing focus on effective crisis management, recovery and resolution measures in reducing both the probability and impact of a bank failure.
The Committee has sought to give appropriate emphasis to these emerging issues by embedding them into the Core Principles, as appropriate, and including specific references under each relevant Principle.
In addition, sound corporate governance underpins effective risk management and public confidence in individual banks and the banking system. Given fundamental deficiencies in banks' corporate governance that were exposed during the crisis, a new Core Principle on corporate governance has been added by bringing together existing corporate governance criteria in the assessment methodology and giving greater emphasis to sound corporate governance practices. Similarly, the Committee reiterated the key role of robust market discipline in fostering a safe and sound banking system by expanding an existing Core Principle into two new ones dedicated respectively to greater public disclosure and transparency, and enhanced financial reporting and external audit.
As a result of the Committee's review, the number of Core Principles has increased from 25 to 29. There are a total of 39 new assessment criteria, comprising 34 new essential criteria and 5 new additional criteria. In addition, 34 additional criteria from the existing assessment methodology have been upgraded to essential criteria that represent minimum baseline requirements for all countries.
A consultative version of the revised Core Principles was issued for public consultation in December 2011. The Committee appreciates the constructive comments received and thanks those who have taken the time and effort to express their views on the consultative document.